Category Archives: Building Physics

Air tightness Test-Passive House 0.22ACH

Self Build air tightness test -0.22ach with a volume of 603 m3 @ 50 pascals. 

When one is building to a performance standard the day of reckoning is the airtight test. The reason for this is that when one is pumping fresh air into the house using a Heat Recovery System, rather than relying on simple multiple holes in the wall, it becomes important to control where the fresh air is coming from and where the heat is going.

Airtight Test
Airtight Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

If air is leaking in or out around windows /doors/walls or other gaps in the building fabric then heat is lost and moisture problems in the form of mould can arise or else give rise to damage to the building fabric.

The pressure 50 pascals equates to a 20 mile per hour wind which is not too untypical in Ireland. So if one opts for the Irish  building standard (a minimum standard) this equates to the air in the house changing/leaking 7 times a hour when a wind blows at 20 miles per hour. No wonder people block up the hole in the wall vents .

  • The current Irish building standard  require 7 air changes  per hour (ach) also called leakage at 50 pascals  typically with no heat recovery system As a guidance heat recovery manufactures recommend 3 Air leakages per hour to ensure that the heat recovery system can push fresh air into the house and recover heat leaving the house through its own system rather than through gaps in the building fabric.
  • The passive house standard for a new house requires 0.6 Air changes per hour (ach) at 50 pascals to ensure the heat recovery system works efficiently, ensure that occupants receive the correct amount of fresh air and minimise building fabric damage.

The passive house test differs from the Irish test because it must include pressurisation and depressurisation and use the volume as set out per Vn50 (EN13829).

The Test

Gavin O Shea from Greenbuild was hired for the job.  He is certified/audited by the National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI).

The preparation for this entailed sealing all cable ducts and the inlet and outlet pipes for the Heat Recovery System. One also ensures that the shower and sink outlet traps are full of water. The overflow outlet for two water tanks were not sealed off. I did consider a duck valve but it was not in place at the time of the test.

Air Tight Test
Airtight Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The test using the Irish method gave a result of 0.181 m3
/(hr.m2).

Gavin O Shea calculated that the equivalent size hole that equates to a result of 0.22 ach is approximately 65.25 cm2 (@50Pa) or a hole 81mm x 81mm if all of the leaks present in the dwelling were concentrated into one hole. That is about a tenth of an A4 sheet of paper.

The results of the air tight test can also help determine the selection of the  Heat Recovery System. If the airtight test is lower then more options are available when selecting a unit.

From my research a passive house standard Heat Recovery Unit will cost more because it needs to be independently tested by the Passive House Institute using their test method. Heat Recovery manufactures have also the burden of putting the unit through national tests or international tests with the end result being the customer pays more.  One has also the option to select a non passive house certified unit for a passive house but when calculating the performance value one needs to account for this in the PHPP software with a 12% reduction below the manufacturers performance claim.

If one wants to view certified Heat Recovery Units one can find and sort them at the following link.  One can see for example at this link the capacity (Column- Air Flow Range) that these units have as it is important to select a unit that is oversized for your particular self build. I would compare it to selecting a mini car to tow a caravan up a hill compared to using a larger car. The small car will struggle from an efficiency and noise point of view while the larger car will be quieter and more efficient at the require flow rates.  I will do a separate post on how I selected our Heat Recovery Unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Building Science and Physics

I recently came across a few videos from America on the subject of building physics. They may help the self builder when trying to figure the wall system, roof design or insulation to use.

The videos are presented by Joseph Lstiburek who outlines the do’s and dont’s in a very direct manner.  He is the founder of Building Science Corporation.

In the videos he references the American method of describing heat loss which is the R value (resistance to heat loss per inch- a higher number is better) while in Europe we mainly use the U value (ease in which heat travels through an object-a lower number is better but it includes boundary air films). The R value is the thickness of the insulation divided by the K value or in the examples  presented by Joseph Lstiburek the R value of 2 of the Irish building is approximately equivalent to a U value of 0.5.

This video starts with the progress for insulating buildings in 1000 years (starting with an Irish Church) and covers the perfect wall, roof and slab and the importance of designing buildings for the climate they are situated in.

Video  (Below)

Commercial Thermal Bridging , LEED Building Problems, Water problems.

Physics Discussed (2nd law of thermodynamics)

  • Heat flow is from warm to cold
  • Moisture flow is from warm to cold
  • Moisture flow is from more to less
  • Air flow is from a higher pressure to a lower pressure
  • Gravity acts down

Quality Assurance-Figuring out what the right thing to do is

Quality Control– Executing it

The building layer order of importance for a wall, roof and slab and the importance of continuity between the layers as shown below in order of importance.

  • Water control layer
  • Air control layer
  • Vapour control
  • Thermal control

The 500 year wall-Keep the water out of it. Allow the vapour to get out from the inside or outside if it gets in. Keep the air out of the wall from the outside and inside. Put all the thermal layers on the outside and put the cladding on the outside.

He also analyses the LEED energy standard.

To Vent or not to Vent (Roofs-cold, warm and SIPS)

This video covers venting and airtightness of SIP roofs.

What happens when one uses a white roof membrane versus a black one.

Building Enclosures

Why increasing insulation is a game changer in the future . Moisture and durability issues that lie ahead because of extra insulation.